Nearctic aphid Cinara splendens (Gillette and Palmer, 1924) was collected on ornamental Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in South Bohemia in 2009. It was the first record of this species in the Palaearctic region. The aim of this research was to study the bionomy of this species in Central Europe and to make descriptions of all available morphs, as previous morphological descriptions of C. splendens appeared to be incomplete. Six monitoring sites of this species were established in South Bohemia and were then regularly attended in the period of 2009-2019. The colonies of C. splendens were observed; its natural enemies and honeydew users were also registered. Aphids were collected for the microscope slide preparation, followed by the evaluation of thirty of the basic quantitative and seven qualitative morphological characteristics. Partial sequences of mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1α were used to confirm morphology-based identification and to compare samples from the Czech Republic with those of North American origin. Cinara splendens survived successfully under new ecological conditions, but its population density remained quite low, except for 2009 and 2019, due to a synergistic effect of the dry weather and very high population density of the adelgid Gilletteella coweni (Gillette, 1907), which is a key pest of Douglas fir in the Czech Republic. The principle predators were coccinellid beetles, while the aphidophagous hover flies were less abundant. Together with a weak ability to migrate due to a low number of alate viviparous females in population, C. splendens cannot be a potential pest of P. menziesii in Central Europe.