A putative novel positive-sense (+) RNA virus was detected in isolate CF16158 of the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight and crown rot in wheat in China. The full genome of this virus was sequenced and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence is 7,051 nt long and contains four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF2 is predicted to encode helicase (Hel) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains that are conserved among the alphavirus-like viruses. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of Hel and RdRp indicated that this (+) RNA mycovirus is a novel member of a new, yet to be established family of alphavirus-like viruses. Therefore, we named this virus "Fusarium graminearum alphavirus-like virus 1" (FgALV1). This is the first report of a full-length genomic sequence of a putative alphavirus-like virus in F. graminearum.