Common bunt, caused by Tilletia laevis Kühn [syn. T. foetida (Wallr) Liro] and Tilletia tritici (Bjerk.) Wint. [syn. T. caries (DC) Tul.], is an important wheat disease worldwide. To quickly differentiate the closely related fungi T. laevis, T. tritici and Tilletia controversa (a pathogen that causes dwarf bunt of wheat and has been requested as a quarantined pathogen in many countries), a rapid diagnostic and detection method for an ISSR molecular marker was developed for the first time in this study. Based on the T. laevis-specific band (1300 bp) amplified by the primer ISSR860, a pair of SCAR primers (L60F/L60R) was designed to amplify a specific 660-bp DNA fragment from the isolates of T. laevis but not other related pathogens. The detection limit of the SCAR marker was 0.4 ng/µl of DNA from T. laevis; moreover, a SYBR Green I real-time PCR method was also successfully developed based on the SCAR marker with the detection limit of 10 fg/µl T. laevis DNA. This is the first report of a rapid, specific and highly sensitive SCAR marker and SYBR Green I real-time PCR method for detection of the teliospores of T. laevis based on ISSR technology. This method allows highly efficient, rapid and accurate differentiation of the pathogen from related pathogens, especially from the very similar pathogens T. tritici and T. controversa.