Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of mango (Mangifera indica, Anacardiaceae), a disease of international importance. Since the original description of the bacterium in the 1940s, the status of cashew (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae) as a host species has been unclear. Here, we report the first outbreak of a cashew bacterial disease in Burkina Faso (Western Africa) where X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae recently emerged on mango. A comprehensive molecular characterization, based on multilocus sequence analysis, supplemented with pathogenicity assays of isolates obtained during the outbreak, indicated that the causal agent on cashew in Burkina Faso is X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae and not X. citri pv. anacardii, which was previously reported as the causal agent of a cashew bacterial leaf spot in Brazil. Pathogenicity data supported by population biology in Burkina Faso suggest a lack of host specialization. Therefore, the inoculum from each crop is potentially harmful to both host species. Symptoms induced on cashew leaves and fruit by X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae and nonpigmented strains of X. citri pv. anacardii are similar, although the causative bacteria are genetically different. Thus, xanthomonads pathogenic on cashew may represent a new example of pathological convergence in this bacterial genus.