Cryptocercus is a genus of sub-social wood-feeding cockroaches that represents the sister group to the eusocial termites. We generated mitochondrial (12S+ 16S rRNA, COII), nuclear (28S rRNA) and Blattbacterium endosymbiont (16S+23S rRNA) sequence data for 8 new Chinese species, and combined these with previously available data to undertake the most extensive analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the genus to date. As expected, phylogenetic relationships among Blattabacterium strains were found to be congruent with those of their hosts. Three major clades were found to exist in Asian populations, one representing taxa from the Hengduan mountains in Southwestern China, a second including taxa from Russia, Korea, Northeastern China, and Yunnan in the Hengduan Mountains, and a third including taxa from the Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains in Central China. A molecular dating analysis using 7 termite fossils to calibrate the molecular clock indicated that the divergence of American and Asian Cryptocercus occurred 55.09 Ma (41.55-72.28 Ma 95% CI), and that the radiations of American and Asian taxa occurred 28.48 Ma (20.83-37.95 Ma 95% CI) and 20.97 Ma (15.78-27.21 Ma 95% CI) respectively. Reconstruction of ancestral geographic distributions using S-DIVA suggested Cryptocercus was originally distributed across both continents, as opposed to ancestral migration of Cryptocercus from one continent to the other. The last common ancestor of Asian Cryptocercus was inferred to have existed in Central China. An examination of male chromosome numbers in Asian Cryptocercus showed that diploid numbers vary from 2n=15 to 2n=41, and indicates the presence of eight new species. Our study represents the most comprehensive phylogenetic and biogeographic study yet performed for this important group of cockroaches.