Cookies on Plantwise Knowledge Bank

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

 

Continuing to use www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Plantwise Knowledge Bank

Your search results

Species Page

Mexican fruit fly

Anastrepha ludens

Distribution

You can pan and zoom the map
Save map

Host plants / species affected

Main hosts

show all species affected
Casimiroa edulis (white sapote)
Citrus
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)
Citrus maxima (pummelo)
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)
Mangifera indica (mango)
Prunus persica (peach)

List of symptoms / signs

Fruit - internal feeding

Symptoms

Attacked fruit can show signs of oviposition punctures, but these, or any other symptoms of damage, are often difficult to detect in the early stages of infestation. Much damage may occur inside the fruit before external symptoms are seen, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting. Very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

Prevention and control

Control can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them. Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray (Roessler, 1989); practical details are given by Bateman (1982) and Silva-Contreras (1978) give an example specific to A. ludens.

Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies. Many different attractants have been developed including fermented corn extract (Lee et al., 1997), host-fruit volatiles (Robacker and Heath, 1996), pheromones (Landolt and Heath, 1996), Staphylococcus aureus odour (Robacker and Flath, 1995) and corn hydrolysate (Heath et al., 1994).

Biological Control

Control of A. ludens using Bacillus thuringiensis has been tested in the laboratory (Martinez et al., 1997) and found to cause up to 90% adult mortality.

Biological control has been tried against A. ludens, but introduced parasitoids have had little impact (Wharton, 1989). Sterile insect release has been tested against A. ludens (Gilmore, 1989) and although no major eradication programme has been carried out, sterile flies are used as part of a programme to keep a fly free zone in southern Texas, USA (Mangan, 1996).

Parasitoids of the mediterranean and oriental fruit flies were imported from Hawaii, USA, in 1954-59, but only Biosteres longicaudatus and Aceratoneuromyia indica became established. It was claimed that A. indica accounted for up to 80% parasitism (Clausen, 1978).

Impact

Anastrepha spp. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (CABI/EPPO, 1998). A. ludens is mainly important on Citrus spp. and mangoes [Mangifera indica]. It is the most abundant fruit fly in some areas of Guatemala (Eskafi, 1988) and Mexico (Malo et al., 1987).