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Symptoms are as for a typical rust; yellowish-brown (uredinia) or blackish-brown (telia) pustules on the leaves, either solitary or aggregated. The uredinia are the first to develop and these produce the characteristic minutely verruculose, yellowish, urediniospores. The telia develop later and produce the thick-walled, yellowish-brown, pedicellate, teliospores.
Resistance appears to be due to a significant reduction in the number of appressoria formed by the fungus on resistant species (for example, Gladiolus daleni) compared to the number formed on susceptible cultivars (for example, Goldfield) (Ferreira and Rijkenberg, 1991). An evaluation schedule and a standardized artificial inoculation technique have been developed. All cultivars evaluated were susceptible to U. transversalis; the most resistant species were G. daleni, G. ochroleucus, G. papilio, G. tristis var. concolor and G. tristis var. tristis. Very resistant selections were obtained from the following crosses: G. alatus x G. tristis; Vuurland x G. tristis; Campanella and Nymph x G. angustus; and G. daleni x G. carinatus. The inheritance of resistance from G. daleni and G. tristis has been described.
Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources:
Ferreira and Nevill (1989) found that corm yield was adversely affected by rust, and weekly applications of bitertanol or triadimefon were necessary to ensure a reasonable yield. Marketable inflorescences were harvested only from plots treated weekly with fungicides; internode length on flower spikes was closely related to the intervals between applications.