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Species Page

black and white citrus longhorn

Anoplophora chinensis
This information is part of a full datasheet available in the Crop Protection Compendium (CPC);www.cabi.org/cpc. For information on how to access the CPC, click here.
©CAB International. Published under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence.

Distribution

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Host plants / species affected

Main hosts

show all species affected
Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)
Citrus
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)
Citrus deliciosa (mediterranean mandarin)
Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)
Citrus maxima (pummelo)
Citrus natsudaidai (natsudaidai)
Citrus nobilis (tangor)
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)
Citrus unshiu (satsuma)
Malus domestica (apple)
Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)
Populus (poplars)
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar)
Populus maximowiczii (Japanese poplar)
Populus nigra (black poplar)
Populus sieboldii (japanese aspen)
Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar)
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)
Salix gracilistyla (big catkin willow)
Salix integra
Salix jessoensis
Salix laevigata (red willow)
Salix sachalinensis

List of symptoms / signs

Leaves - external feeding
Roots - internal feeding
Stems - gummosis or resinosis
Stems - internal feeding
Stems - visible frass
Whole plant - frass visible
Whole plant - plant dead; dieback

Symptoms

A female will use her mandibles to cut a T-shaped slit in the bark of the tree trunk close to ground level or on an exposed root, in which to lay an egg. Upon hatching the larva bores into the stem and destroys the pith and vascular system of the host (Adachi, 1989; Mitomi et al., 1990) but later enters the heart wood, tunnelling up and down. Considerable amounts of frass (small cylindrical pellets of sawdust) and woodpulp are ejected through holes in the bark (Gressitt, 1942). The piles of frass accumulating at the base of an attacked tree are usually conspicuous when a tree is undisturbed and give a good indication of infestation. Adults eat young leaves, branches and bark of the tree (Kajiwara et al., 1986).

Prevention and control

Insecticide treatments are used in Citrus orchards in China and Japan. The insecticides are sprayed on the tree canopy to kill adults, and at the base of the trunk to kill eggs and larvae (Komazaki et al., 1989).

Biological control has been used in Japan with the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Kashio, 1982, 1986), and with the pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii (Kashio and Ujiye, 1988; Japan Plant Protection Society, 1997). Application of a formulation of B. brongniartii drastically decreased emergence of the pest in a Citrus orchard (Kobayashi et al., 1999). The fungi was reported to kill 43-100% of adults when it was impregnated on polyurethane forms and hung from the trunk, or wrapped along the trunks of Citrus trees (Kashio and Tsutsumi, 1990; Tsutsumi et al., 1990). In China, chemical control of A. chinensis was found to be unnecessary when colonies of the ant Oecophylla smaragdina are present in Citrus orchards (Yang, 1984).

Physical methods can also be used. For example, covering the bottom of trunks with netting (6 holes/cm), sticky cardboard or 2-cm fishing net can prevent oviposition and capture adults (Adachi and Korenaga, 1989). Wire netting and piling soil around the trunk base proved to be effective at preventing oviposition in Citrus groves (Adachi, 1990a).

Impact

A. chinensis is regarded as one of the most destructive cerambycid pests of fruit trees, especially Citrus, in lowland areas of China where economic loss can be substantial (Gressitt, 1942; Duffy, 1968; Wang et al., 1996). In a survey of Citrus orchards in six regions of Japan, 66% of trees were found to have adult emergence holes. Across all regions, there was a mean of 3.8 holes per tree although means between regions varied from 2.2 to 5.9 holes per tree (Mitomi et al., 1990). Trees are weakened by larval attack and are readily susceptible to diseases and wind damage. Serious infestation causes tree decay and a decrease of fruit yield in orchards. Damage to small young trees is most serious (Lieu, 1945; Kojima and Hayashi, 1974). Adult damage to the fruiting shoots of fruit trees results in particular economic loss.