One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/
Larval nests are typically seen as leaves webbed together, or attached to fruit. Fruit surface feeding is common within larval nest sites. On apples [Malus domestica], older skin damage has a cork-like appearance, and may be small (5 mm) or larger areas, depending on larval instar and feeding duration. Feeding sites on other fruits are similar.
Vectoring of Botrytis cinerea by larvae has been shown in grapes [Vitis vinifera], with up to 13% of berry damage (by weight) caused as a result (Bailey, 1997).
Regulatory Control (plant quarantine and certification)
Live larvae are not permitted on fruit exported between countries.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
Removal of mummified fruits in older apple varieties was previously recommended (Wearing et al., 1991). Mowing and grazing of the orchard understorey can help to reduce the pest pressure, along with removal of weedy hosts. Development of orchard understoreys based on resistant legume plants has been examined, but no resistant plant material has been found (Burnip and Suckling, 1997).
Natural resistance is not known in many host plants, although some obscure apple cultivars showed weak resistance (Wearing et al., 2003). Transgenic apples expressing Bt toxins were previously under development in several countries (Suckling et al., 1996). Resistance management of transgenic apples expressing Bt toxins has been investigated using mating disruption through modelling (Caprio and Suckling, 1995; Caprio and Suckling, 1997).
Predation by arthropods (including spiders) is a key factor in the population ecology of this species, and a wide range of biological control agents is present in Australia (Danthanarayana, 1983). Parasitoids were introduced from Australia to New Zealand for classical biological control (Thomas, 1989). Several species are routinely encountered, with the most abundant being D. tasmanica on both berryfruit (Charles et al., 1996) and a range of weeds found near apple orchards (Suckling et al., 1998). The success of this parasitoid is affected by the host plant (DM Suckling, Hortresearch, New Zealand, personal communication, 2008).
Innundative release of native egg parasitoids (Trichogramma) has been proposed in Australia (Glen and Hoffman, 1997).
Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: