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In most Peruvian potato cultivars, primary infection induces a mild, patchy leaf mottle, but some sensitive cultivars may react with initial systemic top necrosis followed by strong mottle, leaf deformation and stunting of new outgrowths. Secondary symptoms are strong mottle, leaf deformation and stunting. Plants growing under very cool conditions often develop yellow spotting, blotching or more generalized yellowing on leaves. No tuber symptoms have been reported, but the virus may induce delayed emergence of sprouts (Fribourg et al., 1977; Fribourg and Jones, 1980; Jones et al., 1982).
The virus causes leaf mottle on aubergine (Brioso et al., 1993).
Symptoms of mosaic and yellow mottle are seen in Capsicum frutescens and C. chinense. No symptoms or very mild mottle is seen in C. annuum (Valverde et al., 1995; Valverde, 2003).
The importation of potato tubers from countries where APMoV occurs should be prohibited (see Risk of Introduction). The virus is one of the group of South American pests of potato which justify strict post-entry quarantine procedures in the EPPO region, together with equivalent checks before export. Only material for scientific purposes, in quantities limited to what is strictly necessary and subject to import permit, should normally be imported from countries where APMoV occurs. Because of the probability that any wild tuber-forming Solanum spp. originated from South America may carry the virus, the same tests should be applied whatever their origin. EPPO's specific quarantine requirements (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) outline suitable quarantine measures, while EPPO's phytosanitary procedures lay down the test procedures to be followed both before export and in post-entry quarantine after import (OEPP/EPPO, 1984b).
Control of APMoV depends primarily on the use of high-quality seed potatoes produced from virus-free nuclear stocks, which are initially obtained by meristem-tip culture and in vitro clonal propagation. (Schilde-Rentschler and Schmiediche, 1984). Plantlets are tested for freedom from the virus using nucleic acid spot hybridization and nitrocellulose membrane ELISAs (Dodds and Horton, 1990). Healthy material is further multiplied under greenhouse and field conditions following the usual schemes of seed certification (Bokx and Van der Want, 1987).
Roguing out of diseased plants during the growing season can be effective, as infected plants show conspicuous symptoms (Fribourg and Jones, 1980). Cultivation when plants are small will reduce the hazard of spreading the virus by contaminated equipment.
The wild species Solanum brevidens and S. etuberosum are resistant to APMoV, which opens possibilities for resistance breeding (Valkonen et al., 1992).
The virus causes damaging symptoms in potato and is widespread in its area of occurrence. Direct effects on yield have not been studied, but are probably severe in sensitive potato cultivars (Jones et al., 1982). Experience in Central America has shown that in pepper, mixed infections of APMoV with other viruses (e.g., Tobacco etch virus, Pepper mottle virus) can lead to severe symptoms (e.g., foliar mosaic and stunting) and substantially lower yields (Valverde, 2003).