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Species Page

stem and fruit rot of Capsicum

Phytophthora capsici

Distribution

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Host plants / species affected

Main hosts

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Capsicum (peppers)
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
Solanum melongena (aubergine)

List of symptoms / signs

Stems - dieback
Stems - ooze

Symptoms

Ko and Kunimoto (1994) reported that P. capsici was isolated from 67% of sites of Macadamia integrifolia trees showing quick decline syndrome of bleeding from the trunk. The pathogen was detected in both diseased and apparently healthy bark and isolated from wood 80 mm away from the bark. It is suggested that trunk infection by P. capsici may lead to girdling and rapid decline, and attract insects which then cause some bleeding by making wounds at the sites of recent infection.

Prevention and control

Chemical Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources:


This information is part of a full datasheet available in the Crop Protection Compendium (CPC);www.cabi.org/cpc. For information on how to access the CPC, click here.

Impact

Prabhakaran (1997) reported that the average annual yield loss in black pepper due to various factors was around 33%. The major contributor towards stand loss, was foot rot caused by P. capsici contributing to 9% loss. The percentage avoidable loss in yield by adopting plant protection measures was estimated to be around 43%.

Roe et al. (1994) described reductions in P. capsici infection in Capsicum annuum plant stand numbers comparing a control, to polythene (PL)-mulched plots compared with organic material (OM) and living material (LM) plots. Despite the stand reduction, total C. annuum yields were highest in PL plots and, in the OM plots, decreased in the order sludge yard trimmings (SY) > municipal wastes (MW) > wood chips (WC). Early fruit yields and yield per plant were highest from plants in PL plots followed by those in SY plots. Among LM treatments, plants in SP plots produced the highest early yields and those in FT plots the lowest. Plants in PL plots produced the largest fruits. When the same plots were sown with Cucurbita pepo, plant stand numbers were higher in MW than WC and SY plots. C. pepo yields were similar between PL and OM plots.

Daniell and Falk (1994) described linear programming model results which indicated that, to maximize returns to fixed resources without regard to risk, all resources should be allocated to every-row irrigation. To reduce variance of returns in green chilli production, alternate-row irrigation with metalaxyl was recommended.

Ristaino et al. (1997) found that when dispersal of soil inoculum was suppressed, final disease incidence was 2.5-43% of controls when stubble from an autumn-sown, no-till, wheat cover crop was present. Pathogen dispersal mechanisms were modified most by the no-till cropping system.