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Infections occur mostly on leaves, often on petioles, and less frequently on stems. On susceptible species/cultivars, infections result in small yellowish-brown or greyish-brown spots or lesions (TAN-type), which, on soyabean [Glycine max], are delimited by the vascular bundles. On some hosts, spots are round rather than angular (Vakili and Bromfield, 1976). Pustules of urediniospores are formed on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of lesions, but are more frequent on the abaxial surface. The angular lesions coalesce, turn dark-brown and are covered by buff or pale-brown spore masses as sporulation progresses. When resistant species/cultivars are infected, minute angular reddish-brown spots (RB-type) appear, on which no or only a few uredinial pustules are formed. Sporulation on the RB-type lesions is much less than on the TAN-type lesions (Vakili and Bromfield, 1976; Bromfield et al., 1980; Bonde et al., 2006). Later in the season, lesions may become dark reddish-brown and crust-like; these contain subepidemal telial clusters. The telial stage has been found only occasionally on a few species and not on cultivated soyabeans in the field (Ono et al., 1992).
Successful rust disease management can be achieved by selecting durable resistant/tolerant cultivars with desirable agronomic properties, employing necessary good husbandry, and applying appropriate fungicides at the correct stages of soyabean growth and disease development. No single measure can provide disease management. In every soyabean-growing area, a specific management programme must be developed according to the economic factors, the type of soyabeans to be grown (grain vs. vegetable), the time when soyabeans are to be grown, climatic conditions, soil types, and the number and frequency of prevalent rust races.
Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: