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Species Page

peach fruit fly

Bactrocera zonata
This information is part of a full datasheet available in the Crop Protection Compendium (CPC). Find out more information on how to access the CPC.
©CAB International. Published under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence.

Distribution

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Invasive
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Host plants / species affected

Main hosts

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Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)
Mangifera indica (mango)
Prunus persica (peach)
Psidium guajava (guava)

List of symptoms / signs

Fruit - internal feeding
Fruit - lesions: black or brown
Fruit - premature drop

Symptoms

In juicy fruits, fluid exudes from the oviposition puncture in the form of a droplet that later dries up and appears as a brown, resinous deposit. On hatching, maggots bore their way into the interior of the host. The activity of first-instar larvae is restricted to the area below the oviposition puncture. Second- and third-instar larvae are voracious feeders, go deeper in the host and are mainly responsible for complete deterioration of the host.

Prevention and control

Sanitary Measures

Infested fruits should be picked or those that fall on the ground should be collected and packed in plastic bags, tied carefully and exposed to direct sunlight, or buried deep in the soil. Proper sanitation in fields and orchards is essential. The soil water content level should be sustained at 100% of the field capacity to control B. zonata pupae in the soil (El-Gendy and AbdAllah, 2019). Furthermore, after harvest, no fruits should be left unpicked in the garden.

Physical Control

Wrapping or bagging individual fruit to prevent oviposition by females is effective.

Biological control

The parasitoid Aganaspis daci attacks B. zonata and could be used as a part of a biological controlling programme; however it is not expected to be a key agent for control of the pest (Adly, 2016).

Chemical Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources:

Impact

Bactrocera zonata is polyphagous. In India, Pakistan, and now Egypt, it is an important fruit fly pest and causes severe damage to more than 40 hosts, especially peach [Prunus persica], guava [Pisidium guajava], mango [Mangifera indica], apple [Malus domestica], jujube (Ziziphus) and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), then moves to cucurbits [Cucurbitaceae], citrus, pomegranate (Punica granatum) and sapodilla (Manilkara zapota). In recent years, B. zonata has increased its host range to a number of vegetables such as okra [Abelmoschus esculentus], aubergine [Solanum melongena], squash, tomatoes [Solanum lycopersicum] and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (CDFA, 2011; El-Gendy, 2017).

In certain areas of north India and Pakistan it has been more notorious than Bactrocera dorsalis (Qureshi et al., 1991; Kapoor, 1993). It has a great preference for fruits including peaches and guavas and sometimes the crop is severely damaged. Infestations are often mixed with B. dorsalis. The present status of this fly is quite contrary to earlier reports when dorsalis was mentioned as more aggressive and serious. However, in Sri Lanka B. zonata does not appear to be an important pest (Tsuruta et al., 1997).