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In cucumber, CVYV causes pronounced vein clearing, chlorosis and finally general necrosis of the affected plant (Cohen and Nitzany, 1960). Light- to dark-green mosaic is observed on fruit (Anon., 2001). Non-parthenocarpic cucumbers have been reported to be symptomless carriers of CVYV while parthenocarpic cucumbers develop severe symptoms. Symptoms in both cucumber and melon have been described as vein yellowing, vein clearing and stunting with a corresponding yield reduction (Yilmaz et al., 1989). Sudden death was observed on melon in Spain (Janssen and Cuadrado, 2001). In watermelon, symptoms are often inconspicuous or not expressed (Anon., 2001). Occasional splitting of fruits has been observed (Janssen and Cuadrado, 2001). In courgette, there is a wide range of symptoms, from chlorotic mottling to vein yellowing, or no symptoms (Anon., 2001). In Spain, symptoms are considered to be increased by synergistic reactions between different viruses. Pinwheel-shaped cytoplasmic inclusions (typical of the Potyviridae) have been seen in electron microscopic studies of cells from CVYV-infected plants (Lecoq et al., 2000).
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
Care should be taken to protect cucumber or melon seedlings from infection before transplanting in the field or under plastic. This requires raising the seedlings in a whitefly-free environment. In protected crops in Spain, control relies on preventive and cultural practices (use of pest-free seedlings, adequate glasshouse window screens, double doors, treatment of infected vegetable residues and the introduction of a rest period of at least one month between two cucurbit crops, monitoring of Bemisia tabaci populations).
Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources:
The cucumber disease caused by CVYV was first observed in the late 1950s in the Jordan valley area of Israel during the warm autumn growing season where it was reported to be severe and damaging. At that time, it had not been recorded in the cooler regions of Israel or during other seasons in the Jordan Valley (Cohen and Nitzany, 1960). In 1985, CVYV was recorded as present in the Jordan Valley in Jordan, but no indication of damage in this country has been given except that the virus stunted parthenocarpic cucumbers grown under plastic and that it was the most frequent viral disease of that crop (Al-Musa et al., 1985; Mansour and Al-Musa, 1993). Mansour (1994) reported that, in 1992, CVYV was detected in 43% of tested samples collected from cucumber crops grown under plastic. Similarly, the presence of CVYV on cucumber and melon in Turkey was not accompanied by information on crop damage other than a description of symptoms (Yilmaz et al., 1989). However, CVYV has been described as a widespread and severe disease of cucurbits in the eastern Mediterranean basin (Lecoq et al., 2000) and considerable losses were reported from Spain during the first outbreak (Cuadrado et al., 2001b). In autumn 2000, CVYV was considered important enough for the Spanish authorities to destroy affected plants covering 70 ha of glasshouses in an attempt to suppress further spread (Cuadrado et al., 2001a). In 2001, occasional splitting of watermelon fruits has been observed in Spain (Janssen and Cuadrado, 2001).