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As originally described, citrus mosaic in India involved stunting, chlorosis and uniformly distributed leaf mosaic, followed by a leathery texture of mature leaves. The characteristic symptoms due to CiYMV in field-infected orange and pummelo are bright-yellow mottling of the leaves and yellow flecking along the veins (Ahlawat et al., 1996a). Leaf size is reduced, and infected trees are comparatively stunted. Fruits show depressed yellow patches and elevated green areas (Ahlawat, 2000). Graft inoculated plants from pure cultures of the virus obtained by mechanical and insect transmission showed yellow mottling and yellow flecking along the veins as characteristic symptoms of the disease similar to field symptoms (Pant and Ahlawat, 1997). Rather more variable symptoms develop on graft-inoculated species of Citrus in the glasshouse (Ahlawat and Pant, 1999).
The use of virus free budwood is the only control measure currently recommended. No work on breeding for resistance has been undertaken to date. Planococcus citri has recently been identified as the vector of the virus. However, it is presently only controlled in its capacity as a pest and not as a vector of CiYMV.
CiYMV is widespread in India and of great economic importance to the citrus industry. It is particularly common on sweet orange, on which it is locally very damaging. Losses range from 10 to 70% in orchards in Andhra Pradesh. In some areas, orchards have had to be abandoned because of the disease. Losses in fruit yield of 77% have been recorded in infected trees of sweet oranges. CiYMV has also been found in many commercial nurseries. The disease also commonly occurs on pummelo, but this species is not grown commercially in India, so the extent of losses is not known (Ahlawat et al., 1996a).