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Plantwise Technical Factsheet

stem and fruit rot of Capsicum (Phytophthora capsici)

Host plants / species affected
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)
Capsicum (peppers)
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)
Carica papaya (pawpaw)
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)
Citrus
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)
Cucurbita (pumpkin)
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)
Dahlia hybrids
Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)
Fragaria chiloensis (Chilean strawberry)
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath)
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)
Lilium (lily)
Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)
Macadamia
Macadamia integrifolia (macadamia nut)
Manihot esculenta (cassava)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)
Philodendron hederaceum var. oxycardium
Piper betle (betel pepper)
Piper nigrum (black pepper)
Solanum gilo (gilo)
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
Solanum melongena (aubergine)
Solanum tuberosum (potato)
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)
List of symptoms/signs
Stems  -  dieback
Stems  -  ooze
Symptoms
Ko and Kunimoto (1994) reported that P. capsici was isolated from 67% of sites of Macadamia integrifolia trees showing quick decline syndrome of bleeding from the trunk. The pathogen was detected in both diseased and apparently healthy bark and isolated from wood 80 mm away from the bark. It is suggested that trunk infection by P. capsici may lead to girdling and rapid decline, and attract insects which then cause some bleeding by making wounds at the sites of recent infection.
Prevention and control

Chemical Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources:


Impact
Prabhakaran (1997) reported that the average annual yield loss in black pepper due to various factors was around 33%. The major contributor towards stand loss, was foot rot caused by P. capsici contributing to 9% loss. The percentage avoidable loss in yield by adopting plant protection measures was estimated to be around 43%.

Roe et al. (1994) described reductions in P. capsici infection in Capsicum annuum plant stand numbers comparing a control, to polythene (PL)-mulched plots compared with organic material (OM) and living material (LM) plots. Despite the stand reduction, total C. annuum yields were highest in PL plots and, in the OM plots, decreased in the order sludge yard trimmings (SY) > municipal wastes (MW) > wood chips (WC). Early fruit yields and yield per plant were highest from plants in PL plots followed by those in SY plots. Among LM treatments, plants in SP plots produced the highest early yields and those in FT plots the lowest. Plants in PL plots produced the largest fruits. When the same plots were sown with Cucurbita pepo, plant stand numbers were higher in MW than WC and SY plots. C. pepo yields were similar between PL and OM plots.

Daniell and Falk (1994) described linear programming model results which indicated that, to maximize returns to fixed resources without regard to risk, all resources should be allocated to every-row irrigation. To reduce variance of returns in green chilli production, alternate-row irrigation with metalaxyl was recommended.

Ristaino et al. (1997) found that when dispersal of soil inoculum was suppressed, final disease incidence was 2.5-43% of controls when stubble from an autumn-sown, no-till, wheat cover crop was present. Pathogen dispersal mechanisms were modified most by the no-till cropping system.
Related treatment support
Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers
Roberts-Bain, R.; Mohammed, S.; CABI, 2011, English language
Zhao Shifu; CABI, 2015, Chinese language
 
Pest Management Decision Guides
Nzila, M.; CABI, 2014, English language
 
External factsheets
AVRDC International Cooperators' Fact Sheets, Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), 2004, English language
East West Seed Tropical Cucurbit Disease Factsheets, East West Seed International Ltd., 2008, English language
Ontario CropIPM factsheets, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada, 2015, French language
TNAU Agritech Portal Crop Protection Factsheets, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, English language
Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheets, The Ohio State University Extension, English language
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