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Plantwise Technical Factsheet

peach fruit moth (Carposina sasakii)

Host plants / species affected
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
Chaenomeles japonica (Japanese quince)
Cornus mas (cornelian cherry)
Crataegus cuneata
Crataegus spp.
Cydonia oblonga (quince)
Malus (ornamental species apple)
Malus domestica (apple)
Malus micromalus
Malus toringo (toringo crab-apple)
Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)
Prunus domestica (plum)
Prunus dulcis (almond)
Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)
Prunus persica (peach)
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)
Pyrus (pears)
Pyrus bretschneideri (yali pear)
Pyrus communis (European pear)
Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)
Rosa (roses)
Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash)
Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)
List of symptoms/signs
Fruit  -  abnormal shape
Fruit  -  discoloration
Fruit  -  gummosis
Fruit  -  internal feeding
Seeds  -  external feeding
Seeds  -  internal feeding
Symptoms

Several eggs may be laid on each fruit, usually near the calyx, and many larvae may tunnel a single fruit (up to 13 have been recorded). The larvae tunnel in the fruit, feeding on the fleshy part and seeds but rejecting the skin.

Prevention and control

Control of the pest was in the past achieved by applying granular formulations of insecticides such as diazinon to the soil shortly before emergence of the adults. This can be followed by foliar sprays of fenitrothion, fenvalerate or deltamethrin at the oviposition peaks of the overwintering and first generations, in combination with the mechanical removal of fallen fruit (Huan et al., 1987). Other active substances found effective in more recent trials include: bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. Soil applications are best used to bring an infestation under control and, in a well-managed orchard, applications should be limited to foliar sprays. In an article on IPM for deciduous fruit crops, Feng (1997) states that chemical methods still dominate for C. sasakii. Sex pheromones (Kang, 1995; Lee et al. 1994) and action thresholds (Jiang et al., 1990) are used to monitor males, and decide on and time chemical control. Sex pheromones are also used to interfere with pre-mating communication between female and male moths, which is called mating disruption (Kydonieus and Beroza, 1982). Recently, the use of entomophilic nematodes has been widely tested (Li et al., 1986; 1993) and seems promising. These may be applied to the soil at the time of adult emergence (Steinernema feltiae; Li et al., 1993; Liu, 1994) or as sprays (Heterorhabditis sp.; Li et al., 1990).

Irradiation has been studied in China. The effects of phosphine fumigation were investigated in Japan (Soma et al., 2000).

Impact
Despite its common name, C. sasakii is primarily a pest of pome fruits. It is considered one of the most important pests of these fruits in the Far East. On apples in Japan, Korea Republic and China, it may cause heavy losses if not controlled (USDA, 1958). In China (Hwang et al., 1958), it is recorded as destroying about one-third of the apple crop in Liaoning province (with Cydia inopinata). It is also damaging to Ziziphus jujuba crops. In the Primor'e territory of Russia, C. sasakii is the most damaging fruit moth, more so than Cydia pomonella. Damage to pears [Pyrus] can reach 100% in some cases, but apples [Malus] are less heavily infested (40-100%); apricots [Prunus armeniaca] are also attacked and, less often, plums [Prunus domestica] (Sytenko, 1960; Pavlova, 1970; Gibanov and Sanin, 1971). C. sasakii is a serious pest of peach [Prunus persica] in Japan. In general, C. sasakii appears to be cited more as a pest of the worldwide-grown rosaceous fruit trees than of indigenous Far Eastern species.
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