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PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION GUIDE: GREEN AND YELLOW LIST

Fall armyworm on maize

Spodoptera frugiperda
Kenya
  • Avoid late or off-season planting.
  • Plant tolerant maize varieties (e.g. with hard husk cover to prevent the pest from penetrating)
  • Regularly weed to remove alternate hosts
  • Plough after infested fields are harvested
  • Ensure optimum use of fertilizer for strong maize plants able to compensate for damage done
  • Avoid planting new crop near infested fields
  • Do not move infested maize materials from one area to another; instead feed to livestock
  • Start monitoring for the pest one week after germination, continue weekly or every second week
  • Monitor 10 consecutive plants in 10 locations of the field.
  • Look for creamy / grey egg masses covered in a felt-like layer of grey-pink scales on the underside of leaves
  • Look for caterpillars having a dark head with a distinct pale, upside-down Y-shape on the front and 4 dark spots on the second-to-last body segment; do so in early morning or evening hours
  • Check for large amounts of moist sawdust-like frass near the whorl and upper leaves
  • Look for small shot or large ragged and elongated holes on the leaves and inside whorls of young plants
  • At early whorl stage, take action if >20% of plants are damaged or infested with larvae. At late whorl stage, if small larvae can be found then consider taking control measures if >40% of whorls are damaged. At tassel and silk stage, do not spray anymore
  • Handpick and destroy caterpillars (e.g.in hot water).
  • Spray neem based product
  • Insecticides are most effective on young larvae and before they enter the funnel and ears.
  • Spray only according to needs identified by monitoring (including decision for a second application)
  • Spray early morning or late afternoon when larvae are active.
  • Minimise usage of WHO class II chemicals for own safety and protection of natural enemies which will help in pest control Always check label for details and wear appropriate PPE
  • Bacillus thuringiensis var aizawai
  • WHO Class III - (slightly hazardous). PHI 1 day, REI 1 day
  • Spinosad (e.g. Tracer at 4ml/20L). Repeat spraying after 14 days
  • WHO class III (slightly hazardous). PHI 1 day, REI 12 Hours. Toxic to honey bees; avoid spraying during flowering and near water ways
  • Chlorantraniliprole (e.g. Corragen)
  • WHO Class U (Unlikely to cause hazard under normal use). PHI 21 days
  • Indoxacarb (e.g. Avaunt 150 SL)
  • WHO class II (Moderately hazardous)
  • Alpha-cypermethrin (e.g. Bestox 100Ec at 60 ml/20L or Tata alpha 10EC at 6ml/20L of water)
  • WHO class II (moderately hazardous). REI is 24hours. PHI is 21 days.
AUTHOR(S): Miriam Otipa ,Muo Kasina (KALRO), Margaret Mulaa (CABI), Rose Kamau, Teresia Karanja, David Mwangi (MOAL&F) and Helen Heya (KEPHIS)

CREATED/UPDATED: March 2017/December 2017
PRODUCED BY: Plantwise

©CAB International. Published under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence.