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Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND)

Comination of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) Amharic: bekologedaybeshta; Tigrigna: efun ketali himam
  • Use certified seed from registered suppliers (enterprises, cooperatives, agrodealers) – This disease is seedborne as well as transmitted by vectors
  • Do not move infected maize plants and seeds to areas without the disease
  • Rotate with non-cereal crops (beans, faba bean, chickpea etc.) for at least 2-3 years/seasons
  • Remove alternate hosts (sorghum, grasses, millet, wheat, oats, sudan grass) and contol insect vectors (see yellow column)
  • Burn maize residues in the field
  • Leave land fallow for 2 months especially where maize is produced using irrigation. Plough and expose soil to sunlight for at least 2 months
  • Additional relevant crops: sorghum, grasses, millet, wheat, oats, sudan grass
  • Monitoring should be coordinated with all farmers in the area. Monitor crop twice every week from crop emergence onwards
  • Look under the leaves in the morning for small insects such as thrips, aphids, beetles and planthoppers. These insects are virus vectors and can transmit the disease
  • Look at leaves, stems, flowers and cobs for disease symptoms. Look for yellowing, curling of the leaf margins, stunting, stem and cob rotting, dead hearts, necrosis, flower abortion and barren cobs
  • When symptoms are observed on a single plant – carry out direct controls (both green and yellow)
  • Rogue out all infected plants when observed in the field
  • Either bury more than 50 cm deep, burn or feed to animals, if there is no development of secondary fungal infection (rotting) on grain or cobs
  • Do not leave any diseased plants in the field as they will be a source of new infections
  • When using a pesticide, always wear protective clothing and follow the instructions on the product label
  • Do not use chemicals with the same mode of action year after year as this can lead to resistance
  • Always consult the most recent list of registered pesticides of MoA, Plant Health Regulatory Directorate, Ethiopia
  • There are no chemical pesticides which can be used against MLND as it is a combination of viruses
  • Insecticides can be used to manage the virus transmitting insect vectors but this should only be done if all diseased plants have been removed from the field
  • Imidacloprid (Tata mida 200SL) 6-10ml/20L to control vectors; Systemic neconicoteinoid; IRAC mode of action: 4A
  • WHO class II (moderately hazardous), REI-12hrs, PHI 7-14 days, toxic to bees do not apply at taselling
  • Lambda-cyholothrin (Duduthrin 1.7 EC) 65ml/20L water to control vectors; Contact and stomach action pyrethroid; IRAC mode of action: 3A
  • WHO class II (moderately hazardous), REI-24hrs, PHI 30 days, Apply twice in planting season, highly toxic to fish avoid spraying near water
AUTHOR(S): Kassahun Sedessa (EIAR), Mebrahtom G/kidan (TBoARD), Habtie Abate (S/Gondar Agri Dept, Amhara)

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