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PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION GUIDE: GREEN AND YELLOW LIST

Control of Parthenium hysterophorus in Sorghum

Parthenium hysterophorus Faramsisa, biya bassa (Oromo), qinche arem (Amharic), kalignole (Somali),
Ethiopia
  • Purchase and sow certified crop and pasture seed to reduce the chance of contamination
  • Seeds travel on animals and machinery - do not allow animals into an affected area and clean machinery to prevent spread
  • Use irrigation water from source without the weed to prevent seed introduction
  • Prevent water runoff from infested land to non-infested land
  • Maintain a regular weeding regime in crops (general crop sanitation)
  • Remove parthenium from roadsides, wastelands, field boundaries and other areas that serve as source of infestation
  • Intercropping reduces vulnerability of crops to parthenium weed hazard and guarantees higher yield
  • Repeated cultivation/harrowing before sowing, use of clean crop seed, competitive varieties that are tall and have high leaf biomass and makes shading, appropriate sowing rate and time and increased amount of fertilizer at sowing
  • Additional relevant crops: maize, finger millet
  • Annual erect broadleaved herb, 0.5-1.5 m high. Leaves pale green and covered with short stiff hairs. Rosette and lower stem leaves deeply divided and large; upper stem leaves are shorter and less divided. White small compact flower heads (about 5 mm across) at the tips of branches, each flowerhead has 5 distinctive "petals".
  • Regularly check edges of waterbodies, grazing places and vehicle tracks for rosettes
  • Check for rosettes after periods of rain as seeds depend on high moisture to germinate
  • Check fields for infestation and consider direct control during critical period of weed competition
  • Check for flowering and seed development to prevent seed set and build up of seed bank
  • Remove plants and the roots and flowering stems before flowering to prevent seed set
  • Follow up weeding consistently to achieve longer term control
  • Conduct regular weeding during critical period of weed competition (4-8 weeks after emergence)
  • Hand hoeing or pulling when the soil is moist before flowering of the plant
  • Manual control is high risk, expensive in terms of labour cost, not sustainable and operation stage-bound. Wear long-sleeved clothes, gloves and, if possible, a mask to avoid contact with skin and respiratory tract as Parthenium weed causes allergic reactions
  • Use and distribute established biocontrol agents (Zaygogramma bicolorata, simicronyx lutulentus,and Listronotus setosipenus)
  • Use of chemical herbicides may lead to the development of herbicide resistance.
  • When using a pesticide, always wear protective clothing and follow the instructions on the product label, such as dosage, timing of application, and pre-harvest interval.
  • Application of suitable herbicides like 2,4-D (1-1.5 lt a.i./ha) applied at 1 to 3 weeks after emergence found effective
  • 2,4-D: Class II (Moderately hazardous)
  • Dicamba (2.8 kg a.i /ha) foliar application
  • Dicamba: Class II (Moderately hazardous)
  • Pre-planting application of Glyphosate (2.7 kg a.i/ha)
  • Glyphosate: WHO Class III (Slightly hazardous) Should be applied before sowing on actively growing Parthenium
AUTHOR(S): Taye T. (EIAR), Tamado T. (Haramaya University), Etagegnehu G. (EIAR), Amare F. (EIAR), Frehiwot S. (Wondo Genet ARC), Desalegn G. (EIAR) and Negussie E. (CABI)

CREATED/UPDATED: February 2016
PRODUCED BY: Plantwise

©CAB International. Published under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence.