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PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION GUIDE: GREEN AND YELLOW LIST

Serpentine leaf miner on beans

Liriomyza species, Likely L trifolii, L. sativae
Zambia
  • Use tolerant crop varieties such as Lukupa or Kabulangeti
  • Where possible, cover small plants with transparent plastic (such as polytunnels) to prevent insects from laying eggs.
  • Weed out leguminous plants which can be alternative hosts such as sweet clover, Lathyrus, and many others.
  • Plant maize around beans because maize acts as a barrier against the leaf miners
  • Rotate beans with cereals, and not with legumes, tomatoes, garlic, onions, groundnut, rape, melon or cucumber.
  • Monitor weekly at all growth stages of crop.
  • Look for tiny thread -like tunnels (mines) on the upper leaf sides.
  • Look for larvae inside tunnels or on the upper side of leaves (tiny legless maggots with no separate head, whitish transparent and later yellow-orange)
  • Threshold: At 8 to 12 infected plants (with 5-6 infected leaves) per 100 plants, consider green direct control action.
  • If, after green direct control, leaf miner damage still increases up to 20 to 30 infected plants per 100 plants, then consider chemical action.
  • Hand pick heavily infested leaves with many leaf miner tunnels, and destroy them by crushing or burying them, or feeding them to cattle.
  • Spray neem extract against larvae onto leaves in the early morning or late evening. Add a sticker such as liquid soap to the neem water mix. Reach good leaf coverage. Neem slightly enters the leaves and reaches some of the larvae inside the tunnel.
  • If possible cover soil under infested plants with plastic sheets to prevent larvae from reaching the ground and pupating
  • When using a chemical pesticide or botanical pesticide, always wear protective clothing and follow the instructions on the product label, such as dosage, timing of application, pre-harvest interval, max number of sprays, restricted re-entry interval. Do not empty into drains and water sources.
  • WHO toxicity class II pesticides might not be allowed in local IPM schemes.
  • Always consult recent list of registered pesticides of ZEMA
  • Dimethoate - based products, (Sinothoate, Dimethoate 40EC, and others) against leaf miner larvae. Contact and systemic organophosphate group of pesticide, IRAC insecticide Group 1B.
  • WHO toxicity class II (moderately acute hazardous); Maximum 2 sprays per season at vegetative stage in min 2 week interval; pre-harvest interval p.h.i. 14 days.; restricted re-entry interval r.e.i. 3 days after spray; Broad spectrum pesticides that kill many natural enemies. Toxic to pollinators, soil organisms like earthworms, and fish. Double-check recent laws whether this pesticide is still allowed in IPM
  • Imidacloprid - based products. Usually used at 200g/L but double-check labels. (Premise 200SC, Amigo GT, Ngenya T450 FS , and others) Systemic neonicotinoid insecticide group IRAC 4.
  • WHO Class II (Moderately hazardous). Max 2 sprays per season at min 7 day interval. p.h.i. 14 days, r.e.i. 3 days. Highly toxic to pollinators such as bees, thus do not spray on flowering crop, and not when weeds are flowering and not near bee hives.
AUTHOR(S): Kela Kasunga, Vincent Simwinga, Hildah Chimutungiza, Mooya Nzila, Theresa Kinkese, Silumesi Mundia, Dorcas Jere, Largwell Siabusu, Mathews Matimelo, Victoria Ndeke, Tisah Ziwa, Mweene Kamombi, Sichilima Isaac (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock)

CREATED/UPDATED: October, 2015
PRODUCED BY: Plantwise

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