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PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION GUIDE: GREEN LIST

Aphids on Green Gram

Aphis craccivora
  • Sowing as early as possible in the rainy season allows plants to start flowering before aphids appear
  • Use a variety that is tolerant to aphids if available
  • Plant natural barriers, such as maize or sorghum, around the crop at least 20 days before planting the green gram
  • Practice close plant spacing as it provides a barrier to aphids coming from the field edges
  • Mulch with rice/wheat straw or a clear polyethylene sheet to discourage winged aphids from landing on the crop
  • Intercrop with onion or garlic
  • Remove weeds and alternative hosts (leguminous plants)
  • Avoid crop rotation with other host plants (e.g. groundnuts, cowpeas, pigeonpeas, chickpeas, beans, lupins, lentils, and lucerne) and avoid planting green gram for more than one season
  • Avoid excess use of nitrogen which make the plants attractive to aphids
  • Encourage the presence of natural enemies (ladybird beetles, parasitoids, syrphids larvae and spiders) by reducing the use of chemicals
  • Weekly monitoring of young plants, leaflets, stems and pods for:
  • Aphids:
    • Adults have shiny black or dark brown body with brown to yellow legs
    • Immature aphids are slightly dusted with wax
  • Signs of aphids:
    • Look for honeydew and sooty mould (or ants attracted to honeydew)
    • Young leaves become twisted due to feeding
  • Monitor every 3 days when conditions are favourable for aphids (around 24-28°C and 65% RH)
  • Apply control measures when colonies are seen on 2 out of 20 plants in the field as A. craccivora is an important vector of more than 30 plant viruses
  • Use overhead irrigation to remove aphids from the leaves
  • Use natural enemies if available in your country (e.g. Aphidius spp., Trioxys indicus or Chrysoperla spp.); follow directions for their spread or release
  • After harvest, destroy crop residues immediately to reduce aphid movement
  • Use yellow sticky traps to control the winged aphids coming from the edges of the field and older crops
  • Spray in the early morning or evening with 160-200 cc neem oil and 100g of liquid soap in 20L of water

CREATED/UPDATED: February 2015
PRODUCED BY: Plantwise