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Thirty-third Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 1953.

Conners, I. L.

Thirty-third Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 1953. 1954 pp. xv+124 pp.;


In the section of this report [cf. R.A.M., 33, p. 709] dealing with new or noteworthy diseases (pp. ii-viii) [also given in French] it is stated that in 1953 Puccinia graminis [see next abstract] was responsible for the loss of 25, 000, 000 bush, of wheat, being epidemic in Manitoba and south-eastern Saskatchewan, and more serious on durum wheat than on bread wheat. The losses were the heaviest since 1935, race 15B-1 predominating. Two collections were made of a new race, 15B-3, to which Selkirk [loc. cit.] and McMurachy were susceptible.
The most important sources of infection of the new crop by wheat streak mosaic virus [33, p. 717] are volunteer plants.
Fungus diseases of soy-bean were of little importance during the period under review, but Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojense was found on soy-beans in Ottawa, a new record for Canada.
As in 1952, potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) [33, p. 709] was reported from every province; tuber rot was severe in British Columbia, but less so in central Alberta, eastern Saskatchewan, and north-eastern Quebec [34, p. 135]. The variety Sebago was highly resistant to Synchytrium endobioticum [loc. cit.], even under favourable weather conditions for the fungus in Newfoundland, where losses from the disease were severe.
Virus diseases of the aster yellows type were reported on carrots, celery, parsnips, spinach, onions, squash, potatoes (as purple top), flax, sunflower, and rape.
Onion pink rot has been shown to be primarily a deficiency disorder, being rectified by the addition of manganese. An outbreak of bacterial blight (Bacterium stewartii) [Xanthomonas stewarti on maize: 32, p. 174] was observed for the first time in Canada since 1933. Tomato ghost spot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, was newly reported as also was Pseudomonas syringae on Lima beans [Phaseolus lunatus] in Ontario.
Venturia inaequalis [34, p. 433] was prevalent on apple during the period under review, particularly in the British Columbia interior.
Among new records of interest on trees and shrubs were Verticillium dahliae on Lonicem morrowi in Ontario, Taphrina populi-salicis on poplar in British Columbia, and Phleospora ulmi on elm in Nova Scotia. Melampsora occidentalis on Populus trichocarpa[Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa] and M. albertensis on P. tremuloides have aecidial states on Pseudotsuga. On ornamentals new diseases included boron deficiency in gloxinia in Prince Edward Island, Alternaria raphani on Matthiola in Quebec, and the second record of [chrysanthemum] rust, Puccinia chrysanthemi [C.M.I, map No. 117], in Ontario. Embodied in the report are a number of special contributions including one concerning the occurrence of ergot [Claviceps purpurea: R.A.M., 29, p. 141] on wheat, barley, and rye in western Canada, by I. L. CONNEES (pp. 23-28). In a survey conducted in 1953 the percentages of wheat fields infected with ergot in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta were 7, 10.4, and 13.3, respectively; of barley, 7.1, 20.7, and 7.2; and rye, 100, 66.7, and 53.4, respectively. The level of infection in rye fluctuated considerably over a period of years, 15.3 per cent, of the crop being graded ergoty in 1942-3, 0.2 in 1951-2, and 7.7 in 1953.
W. E. SACKSTON contributed notes on sunflower diseases in Manitoba in 1953 (pp. 45-48). Severe systemic infections of downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) [C.M.I, map No. 286], the highest since recordings began in 1948, were observed. More than one per cent, of the sunflowers in a Winnipeg nursery were affected. In one farm field 60 per cent, infection was noted, with patches in which 95 per cent, of the plants had been killed by the disease.