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Fungi associated with bark beetles in Poland.

Siemaszko, W.

Planta polonica 1939 Vol 7 No. 3 pp. 54 pp.;


The author studied the association of fungi with bark beetles on material collected from 1933 to 1937 in different parts of Poland. Constant associates of Ips typographus on spruce (Picea excelsa[Picea abies]) [P. abies] were Saccharomycetaceae, mostly of a type closely resembling Endomyces bisporus, and the blue-staining fungi Ophiostoma penicillatum n.comb. [Ceratostomella penicillata] , O. polonicum n.sp., and Graphium pycnocephalum; of I. sexdentatus on pine (Pinus sylvestris), Saccharomycetaceae and the blue-staining fungi 0. [or C.] ips and 0. [or C. ] pini; of Myelophilus piniperda[Tomicus piniperda] on pine, 0. pini; and of Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus on elm (Ulmus foliacea), Saccharomycetaceae and the blue-staining fungus G. [C. ] ulmi. Descriptions are given of these fungi and many others occasionally associated with the beetles.
The blue-staining 0. minutum n.sp., an occasional associate of /. typographus, has superficial, brown, slightly hairy or smooth, subglobose perithecia 84 to 140 μ in height and 74 to 125 μ in diameter, with a rostrum 98 to 140 by 14 to 20 μ; the ascospores are hyaline, fili-form-acicular, curved, 8 to 10 (12.5) by 1 to 1.5 μ. O. penicillatum has the conidial stage Leptographium penicillatum. 0. polonicum n.sp. has conidial stages of both Leptographium and Cephalosporium types. The intensely brown-staining Stysanus ulmi n.sp. is an occasional associate of Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus on elms; it has synnemata 234 to 312 μ in height by 15.6 to 23.4 μ in diameter or 130 to 195 by 26 to 34.4 μ; conidia hyaline (fuliginous in mass), truncate at both ends, one more obtuse than the other, 3.8 to 5 by 1.9 to 2 μ. Latin diagnoses are given of the new species.
The author does not recognize the genus Grosmannia established by Goidànich [R.A.M., xv, p. 826], which was made to include certain species of Ophiostoma on the grounds that these species differed from other representatives of the genus in having a conidial stage of the Leptographium type. However, as O. ips is known to have a Graphium conidial stage as well as one of the above-mentioned type, and the imperfect stages of Mycosphaerella are variable, it is considered possible for the genus Ophiostoma to have conidial stages of the types Chalara, Leptographium, Graphium, Cladosporium, Cephalosporium, and Thielaviopsis.
The most harmful wood-staining fungi in Poland are 0. pini on pine and 0. piliferum [or C. pilifera] and O. [or C .] coerulescens on pine and spruce; O. [or C .] piceae (conidial stage G. penicillioides) occurs on spruce, pine, oak, and fir; L. serpens n.comb. (syn. Scopularia serpens) has been found on the wood of a pine killed by the bark beetle M. piniperda.