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Cassava plants infected by ICMV, SLCMV and other CMGs display diverse foliar symptoms, the type and severity of which are determined by a number of factors. Broadly, symptoms include yellow or green mosaic, mottling, and misshapen and twisted leaves that may be reduced in size. Although these symptoms are characteristic of all CMGs, they may differ in distribution in the fields, from plant to plant, and even on the same plant. Symptom-based field diagnosis of ICMV, SLCMV and other CMGs is impracticable due to similarities of induced symptoms in infected plants regardless of the causative virus. Consequently, it is imperative to confirm virus presence using PCR and/or ELISA methods with species-specific oligonucleotides and discriminating antibodies, respectively. PCR diagnosis is the method of choice due to a considerably high serological relationship among CMGs and cross reactivity of their antibodies.
Management of CMD, caused by ICMV and/or SLCMV, follows the same approach as in other viral diseases on crops other than cassava. Vector control via use of insecticides is cost prohibitive and environmentally unsustainable. Therefore, the main approaches to CMD management are phytosanitation through selection and propagation of disease-free cuttings and breeding/cultivation of CMD-resistant cassava cultivars (Thresh and Otim-Nape, 1994). The combined use of both strategies is expected to result in a more reliable control strategy. According to Calvert and Thresh (2002), not much attention has been devoted to the use of these strategies for CMD management in India primarily due to the fact that the disease is largely ignored by farmers and minimal CMD-associated losses recorded due to implementation of more intensive production practices in Asia compared to their African counterparts.