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Plantwise Technical Factsheet

Jarvis' fruit fly (Bactrocera jarvisi)

Host plants / species affected
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)
Annona glabra (pond apple)
Annona muricata (soursop)
Areca catechu (betelnut palm)
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)
Carica papaya (pawpaw)
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)
Citrus limon (lemon)
Citrus maxima (pummelo)
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)
Cydonia oblonga (quince)
Diospyros blancoi (mabolo)
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)
Feijoa sellowiana (Horn of plenty)
Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)
Malpighia emarginata
Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)
Mangifera indica (mango)
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)
Opuntia sp. (pricklypear)
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)
Persea americana (avocado)
Planchonia careya
Pouteria caimito
Pouteria campechiana (canistel)
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)
Prunus persica (peach)
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)
Psidium guajava (guava)
Punica granatum (pomegranate)
Pyrus communis (European pear)
Spondias purpurea (red mombin)
Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple)
Syzygium forte
Syzygium jambos (rose apple)
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)
Syzygium samarangense (water apple)
Terminalia arenicola
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)
List of symptoms/signs
Fruit  -  discoloration
Fruit  -  gummosis
Fruit  -  internal feeding
Fruit  -  lesions: black or brown
Fruit  -  lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit  -  obvious exit hole
Fruit  -  odour
Fruit  -  ooze
Symptoms
Fruit which have been attacked by B. jarvisi usually show signs of oviposition punctures around which necrosis may occur.
Prevention and control

When the pest is detected, it is important to gather all fallen and infected host fruits, and destroy them. Baited traps should be continuously used to monitor the population size and spread. One of the most effective control techniques against fruit flies is to wrap the fruit, either in newspaper, paper bags, or polythene sleeves. This is a simple physical barrier to oviposition but it must be applied well before the fruit is attacked. Early harvesting is also an effective control, because very few Bactrocera species attack the fruit prior to ripening. Although cover sprays of the entire crop are sometimes used, bait sprays are both more economical and more environmentally acceptable. A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (e.g. malathion), which is mixed with a protein bait (Roessler, 1989); practical details are given by Bateman (1982). Both male and female fruit flies are attracted to protein sources which emanate ammonia, and so insecticides can be applied to just a few spots in an orchard and the flies will be attracted to these spots. The protein most widely used is hydrolyzed protein, but some supplies of this are acid hydrolyzed which are highly phytotoxic. Smith and Nannan (1988) have developed a system using autolyzed protein. In Malaysia this has been developed into a very effective commercial product derived from brewery waste. Many countries, such as the USA, forbid the import of susceptible fruit without a strict post-harvest treatment having been applied by the exporter. This may involve fumigation, heat treatment (hot vapour or hot water), cold treatments, insecticidal dipping, or irradiation (Armstrong and Couey, 1989). Irradiation is not accepted in most countries and fumigation is a hazardous operation. Heat treatment tends to reduce the shelf life of most fruits, and so the most effective method of regulatory control is to restrict imports of a given fruit to areas free of fruit fly attack. A recent study by Peng and Christian (2006) indicated that the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina is an efficient biocontrol agent of B. jarvisi.

Impact
B. jarvisi is considered a significant pest (Drew and Romig, 1997).
Related treatment support
 
External factsheets
PlantVillage disease guide, PlantVillage, English language
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