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Plantwise Technical Factsheet

strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus)

Host plants / species affected
Achyranthes (chaff flower)
Alchemilla (Lady's mantle)
Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon)
Aphelandra (Zebra plant)
Begonia cucullata var. hookeri (Perpetual begonia)
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)
Chrysanthemum (daisy)
Chrysanthemum frutescens (marguerite)
Consolida ambigua (rocket larkspur)
Cyclamen persicum (cyclamens)
Dianthus (carnation)
Exacum affine
Fatshedera (Ivy tree)
Fragaria (strawberry)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)
Geranium (cranesbill)
Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)
Hedera helix (ivy)
Impatiens walleriana (Busy-lizzy)
Iresine (blood-leaf)
Jasminum sambac (arabian jasmine)
Lantana camara (lantana)
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)
Lobelia erinus (Dwarf blue lobelia)
Myosotis (forget-me-nots)
Nasturtium officinale (watercress)
Oxalis (wood sorrels)
Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston ivy)
Pelargonium (pelargoniums)
Pelargonium peltatum hybrids (ivy-leaved pelargonium)
Petunia hybrida
Plantago (Plantain)
Portulaca oleracea var. sativa
Rhododendron simsii (Sim's azalea)
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)
Rumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)
Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet)
Saxifraga (saxifrage)
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)
Vaccinium (blueberries)
Verbena (vervain)
Veronica peregrina (Wandering speedwell)
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)
List of symptoms/signs
Inflorescence  -  abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Leaves  -  abnormal forms
Leaves  -  leaves rolled or folded
Leaves  -  yellowed or dead
Whole plant  -  dwarfing
Larvae and adults of P. pallidus feed on the foliage and inflorescences of host plants. Infestations on strawberry plants produce a roughened, wrinkled appearance on upper leaf surfaces, irregular folding and fluting of leaf margins, and veins that bulge upward like blisters. Mildly injured plants have dense foliage as petioles fail to elongate. Severely injured plants are dwarfed at the crown and have small leaflets; these become yellowish green, brittle in texture, fail to unfold completely, and eventually turn brown or silvered as their undersurfaces become exposed to the sun. Infested flowers and young fruit become brown near the inner bases of the sepals, and in severe cases may darken and dry (Smith and Goldsmith, 1936). Infested cyclamen plants may appear streaked or blotched, and have distorted leaves and flowers, fewer flowers than normal or complete abortion of flower buds. Symptoms of leaf and flower distortion and discoloration, elongated shoot internodes, and leaf and flower bud deformation or destruction are common to many types of the ornamental plants infested. Heavy infestations may kill African violets and cyclamen.
Prevention and control

Chemical Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de-)registration of pesticides, we are for the moment not including any specific chemical control recommendations. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources:

P. pallidus may cause serious reductions in yield in strawberry crops, especially when young plants are exposed to infestation. Its attacks cause reductions in number of flowers, number of fruits, and fruit size (Alford, 1972a, 1976; Stenseth and Nordby, 1976). Losses of up to 70 or 75% of strawberry production have been reported from Belgium (Bruel, 1946), Russia (Savzdarg, 1957), Poland (Leska, 1964), and Colombia (Urueta and Navarro, 1978). Other reports from Poland and Russia have indicated 30-50% losses of strawberry yield (Aristov and Vodinskaya, 1935; Jaumien and Wiackowski, 1961; Tsitsin et al., 1961). In England, UK, studies showed that moderately to severely injured plants showed 45-53% yield reductions (Alford, 1972a). In Norway, 33% reductions in yield resulted from infestations of 45 mites per leaflet (Stenseth and Nordby, 1976). All commercial varieties of strawberry are hosts to cyclamen mite, but some are much less susceptible and show relatively little injury (Smith and Goldsmith, 1936). In California, USA, damage is most severe among susceptible varieties grown in areas with moderate temperatures and humidities; hotter, drier conditions combine to reduce damage to the point where economic injury is usually slight (Smith and Goldsmith, 1936).

The leaves and flowers of infested ornamental plants become so distorted and discolored as to lose their commercial value.
Related treatment support
External factsheets
Crop Science Extension & Outreach Factsheets, College of ACES, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, USA, English language
Sistemas de Produção Embrapa - Publicações eletrônicas, Embrapa, 2015, Portuguese language
Ontario CropIPM factsheets, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada, 2015, English language
Ontario CropIPM factsheets, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada, 2015, French language
British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture Factsheets, Government of British Columbia, English language
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