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Plantwise Technical Factsheet

meadow froghopper (Philaenus spumarius)

Host plants / species affected
Artemisia (wormwoods)
Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)
Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon)
Beta
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)
Eucalyptus
Fragaria (strawberry)
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)
Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)
Medicago sativa (lucerne)
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin)
Poaceae (grasses)
Prunus (stone fruit)
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)
Prunus dulcis (almond)
Prunus persica (peach)
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)
Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)
Rubus idaeus (raspberry)
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
Solanum tuberosum (potato)
Vitis (grape)
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)
List of symptoms/signs
Stems  -  spittle mass
Whole plant  -  dwarfing
Symptoms
Stunting is most serious in crops such as lucerne and tarragon in which populations can exceed 300/m² (Thompson, 1973; Wightman and Whitford, 1984). Even rather low population levels <1 per stem) can affect plant height (Smith and Ellis, 1983), fruit yields (Zajac and Wilson, 1984) and seed production (Luczak, 1978).

In addition to stunting due to feeding, meadow spittlebugs have been implicated in transmission of various xylem-transmitted diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines (DeLong and Severin, 1950) which is identical with alfalfa dwarf (Hewitt and Houston, 1941), Rubus stunt (Jenser et al., 1981), tomato stolbur (Vlasov et al., 1992) and various diseases of Prunus including peach yellows (Schuster, 1942), 'gummosis of peach' (Emeljanov, 1972), almond leaf scorch (Purcell, 1980), and possibly also 'Moliere's decline' in cherries and plums (Bernhard et al., 1977). Symptoms vary depending on the crop and disease.
Prevention and control
Systemic insecticides are the only chemicals effective against spittlebugs.
Impact
The abundance and ubiquity of this insect, and its ability to feed on most agricultural plants, cause it to be classified as a serious insect pest (Lodos and Kalkandelen, 1981) as well as a threat to the integrity of endangered ecosystems. The spittlebug is also an effective disease agent because of transovarial transmission of phytoplasmas, which has been observed to be as high as 13% of a population (Genite and Radzyavichus, 1983).
Related treatment support
 
External factsheets
Pennsylvania State University Insect Pest Fact Sheets, The Pennsylvania State University, 1983, English language
Ontario CropIPM factsheets, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada, 2015, English language
Ontario CropIPM factsheets, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada, 2015, French language
Crop Science Extension & Outreach Factsheets, College of ACES, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, USA, English language
NYS IPM Factsheets, Cornell University, Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1988, English language
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